Nevada Jurisprudence and Prison Report
Vol. 4, No 2 “Veritas in Caritatis” Spring Issue 2014
THEME: “Audi alterum partem”
Listen to the other side!
“Voice of the Nevada Jurisprudence and Prison Report”
Statement of Purpose:
The NJPR Newsletter reports on current prison conditions, good and bad; more importantly it looks at and evaluates the legal processes and the substantive laws which are designed to keep men in prison: Pre-trial issues, probation and parole policy, sentencing structures, post-conviction law, and most important, the philosophy underlying policy in practice.
The purpose of the NJPR Website is to provide a repository of affidavits, declarations and grievances in Web-Dossiers organized by categories of intuitional behavior. Fundamentally, this is a whistleblowing organization trying to associate with other “transparency” projects at an intrastate, national and global level. We seek to identify patterns which can be utilized by the U.S. Department of Justice.
We invite any resident, and especially judicial officers of the Courts and government Administration to write letters to the NJPR.
Index to this Issue:
Section One: Conditions
1. Ely Inside Exposé: Doctor’s Report, Pt. 2
2. PREA Update At NNCC
3. The Stickney Report on NNCC 1979-2002
Section TWO: Law, Equity and Policy
1. Police Despotism in Dept. of Public Safety
2. Senate Bill 71—The Seamy Underside
3. Racial and Economic Bias Study, Part II
Section Three: Art, Culture, Education and Religion
1. Prisoner Publishing Outlets
2. Poem: Surviving This Game, by Rahsqo
3. Review: Psychotherapy as Religion: The Civil Divine in America, by William M. Epstein
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Section One: Conditions
1) Ely Inside Exposé: Doctor’s Report, Part 2
William K. Noel, DO
7349 W. Garden Glen Drive
Boise, Idaho 83714
Ely State Prison
P. O. Box 1989
Ely, Nevada 89301
October 29, 2011
You have asked me to categorize my investigation, my findings, and any information that came to light during the time the ACLU was investigating the medical care at Ely State Prison. Before I begin, you should know that I have spoken to your investigator and I am aware of the statements made by Boja Lemich, RN and former practitioner at ESP, I am also advising you that your attorney Mr. David Wallace is in possession of certain documents that he will release should anything bad or unfortunate behalf you at ESP. He knows to contact US Attorney L. Anthony “Tony” White at the US Attorney’s office in Reno. I, too, have taken precautions in case these people decide to eliminate their problems instead of settling them. Copies of all the documents you got for me as well as my own writings are in place with legal and journalistic safeguards.
Anything happens to you or anyone else involved in this matter will cause a mess that will be a hot topic on the evening news for years to come.
Now to my investigation. What I have to say will surprise many people, but not you. I am amazed at what you have uncovered on your own. When we (the ACLU) entered Ely State Prison to conduct our interview of the 35 inmates and to discuss their medical files, it became apparent almost immediately that something rotten was going on in the medical department at Ely State Prison.]
All the medical files were incomplete. Someone had taken great pains to remove large sections from the inmate files. It was immediately obvious that someone was trying to hide something. The files should have had multiple volumes, but had only one file folder even though the inmate had been in prison for 30 years, it did not make sense.
I asked Dr. Bannister three times if these files were complete, even the archived files. He replied firmly that this stack of files were absolutely complete. He stated ”you have my assurance these files are absolutely complete”. Dr. Bannister assured me more than once that all the files were totally complete. I asked if the archived files were complete. Dr. Bannister again repeatedly assured me that the files were totally complete. “You have my assurance that all these medical files are absolutely complete” , Dr. Bannister assured me repeatedly. I reviewed the files, but I knew what I was seeing was only what they were allowing us (me and the ACLU) to see. Dennis, your file was only a single section, and yet you had been in prison for more than thirty years. The files we were given was some sort of scam to appease me and the ACLU. Amy Fetig, the lead counsel for the ACLU, and I discussed this at length.
The files I was reading revealed horrible acts of malpractice, cruelty and even murder. I shuttered to think what might be in the complete files.
When I read the Cavanaugh file it was obvious that he had been murdered, I discussed some of my findings with Nurse Loraine Memory. She told me that the prison warden had stated on more than one occasion that certain inmates were not to be saved if they had a cardiac arrest, and were not to be kept alive. Dr. McArthur would then order their medications stopped and they would die a slow, torturous and miserable death.
She also told me about the video tapes that were made of any unusual incident, which were never revealed to the ACLU.
Nurse Memory was a wealth of information, but I am an expert witness, and as such it is my duty to confirm anything told or related to me during the course of this investigation that would be scrutinized in the Federal Courts. With that in mind I reviewed the statements given by Nurse Jewel Jacques, RN and Steven Smith, LPN. Both employed by the Ely State Prison Medical Department. In reviewing their statements I became aware that inmates were being murdered in the infirmary at Ely State Prison.
When one of these inmates marked for death died their remains were cremated immediately. This sort of thing is done to destroy the body which might be used as evidence in a criminal proceeding.
At Ely State Prison Warden McDaniel apparently gave the orders determining which inmates would receive life-saving care, medications and proper treatment. This man is not a knowledgeable medical professional. Once McDaniel gave the order, Dr. McArthur would carry out McDaniel’s wishes. The order stopping the inmate’s medication were written but not signed, but the nurses were verbally ordered to comply with these orders, signed or not. Then the inmates died slowly. After death their medical files were stripped to cover up what had transpired. Director of Nursing Joe Brackbill, Dr. McArthur, and McDaniel then completely “sanitized” the inmate’s medical record. Dr. McArthur ordered Boja Lemich to take the medical files home to review them, which meant that she was the one who removed the medical files from prison. Then McArthur, McDaniel and Brackbill could strip the records at their leisure. I have spoken to Ms. Lemich, who now lives and works in Las Vegas, Nevada. She has confirmed all that I have written here, and she told me that she plans to testify in the trial of McCabe Vs. Gibbons.
I discussed all of this with Amy Fetig at the ACLU, but she declined to do anything. She told me that she was not here to get anyone indicted, but rather to try to get better medical care for the inmates at Ely State Prison. I believe that that is how the AG’s office agreed to the consent decree. The Riker case had to be settled, because if it had gone to court there would have been indictments issued for all the principal players at ESP, i.e., Dr. McArthur, McDaniel, Dr. Bannister and probably the State’s Attorney General who had to know what was going on at ESP and covered it up. You have all the correct evidence now, you have the witnesses, and you have the documents.
I want to give you some well meant advice. You should settle your case with Catherine Cortez-Masto. DO NOT negotiate with one of her flunkies. She is in this up to her ears and she is the chief law enforcement officer in Nevada. She is well aware of what she did as well as what all the others did. She is the one to settle with.
Nevada operates under the “good old boys” network. You will not be able to change anything at ESP or make life any better for any inmate. The most you could win is the AG fired and a few state employees spen a few months in jail or probably plea bargain out of the whole thing. If you are smart, and I believe you are, settle this, get your back surgery in some state other than Nevada [it is so easy to die in a hospital], and get your sentence reduced to time served.
I took an average of ten spinal stenosis surgeries like the one you need. The cost of your surgery will be approximately $253,000,00. That is the amount of money you must get.
Please remember to be very, very careful. These people will try to kill you because of what you know. They have demonstrated that they have no regard for human suffering or human life. Know that if something happens to you all of this will come out, but you will be dead. I have warned all the people I have talked to that they must put in place safeguards in case something happens to them. They all have. Good luck, show them no mercy, and know that you must win. Keep all emotion out of it. You will get what you want.
William K. Noel, DO
[Editor’s Note: Last issue we printed the first of two letters given to NJPN. The case number was not at our disposal so we did not know for sure if the documents were on the public record, even though it had an exhibit number on it. We now have the Case No. 2:03-cv-01006-RLH to offer the public so they can go to Public Access to Court Electronic Records (PACER) to see the whole context. Editor]
2) PREA Update at NNCC
The first week of April 2014, incoming transfers reported that they are being required to view a “PREA Video” prior to release in to general population. The following week the officials began showing the video to all main yard, first to those in Prison Industries (P.I.).
PREA cameras are still not up in the large-barn Unit 10, where the level 1 workers are warehoused. This is probably due to privacy complaint issues. Most stuff and cops are neutral or supportive of the federal mandate to make prisons safe from sexual battery, publically. Intelligent placement of cameras need to be placed in Unit 10. There was a severe battery during this same PREA video period, in the 10A unit bathroom. A well placed camera avoiding the stalls but showing the egress ingress pathways probably would have deterred the beater, because of the certainty of apprehension. Without this camera, the beating will probably cost the people of Nevada a half-million dollars in medical bills, liability, prosecution fees, appellate fee and long term cost of incarceration for the inmate who battered his fellow inmate.
3) The Stickney Report on NNCC, 1979-2002
During the course of investigating his civil rights-prison conditions, an NNCC inmate was informed by old-timers of the Stickney v. List case of 1979, which was a minor victory for NNCC prisoners that was never published. (Part of the case was published at 519 F. Supp. 617, which only dealt with the appointment of a retired California prison warden, Jerry Enomoto, as an inspector of the NNCC facility). Fortunately, the law library had a partial copy of the final Order, captioned CIV-R-79-11-ECR. The only positive finding (out of exhaustive claims) had to do with the severe lack of staffing that caused inadequate supervision and resulted in violent repercussions. The judge ordered the level of supervision increased and kept the prison under his supervision until 2002.
The reason we report this case is for highlighting a very tragic aspect of this polity called Nevada. The fact of the matter is that Robert L. Stickney was allowed to represent “similarly situated” prisoners—as a fellow prisoner! This is highly unusual in a class action suit of prison conditions. This is the words of Judge Edward Reed: “Mr. Stickney is designated by order as representative of the class. It is perhaps unusual that a pro se inmate should or could be a representative of a class. Mr. Stickney is a skilled inmate law clerk… A SERIOUS EFFORT WAS MADE BY THE PLAINTIFF AND BY THE COURT TO OBTAIN COUNSEL TO REPRESENT THE PLAINTIFF CLASS. NO ATTRNEY OR ATTORNYS WOULD AGREE TO TAKE THE CASE.
The study of the workings of the human psyche provide analogues to explain such a conspiracy of passive-aggressive refusal of the entire Nevada state bar. What world view, what metaphysics could explain the modern scapegoat? It is not enough to draw comparisons between the cancer of the Soviet gulag, and the American.
“With the assistance of revolutionary violence the corrective-labor camps localize and render harmless the criminal elements of the old society… The two-in-one task is suppression plus re-education of anyone who can be re-educated… It becomes clear that correction is not for everyone.,, Oh “What an intelligent, farsighted humane administration from top to bottom”, said Supreme Court Judge Leibowitz of New York State in Life magazine, after having visited Gulag… Oh fortunate New York state, to have such a perspicacious jackass for a judge.”
[The Gulag Archipelago, Vol. 2, 1918-1956,6, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, 1993]
Section Two: Law and Equity
1) Washoe County Despotism in Dept. of Public Safety
David Hawkins (yardname Fatboy) was convicted to a long sentence in 1996, prior to the current escalation of the “war-on-crime” by the Nevada Neo-Fascist Party whose regime harkens back to the early 1970’s reaction to the civil unrest of the 1960’s. the Lifetime Supervision laws passed at the height of public hysteria and moral panic in Nevada in 1997, as NRS 176.0931. Fatboy was sentenced just prior to the increase of police surveillance on ex-felons, so the laws don’t apply to him. Fatboy was released on parole to the Northern Command of the Department of Public Safety in Reno (Washoe County) on August 8, 2011. He met with his parole officer Aaron Evans the next day. Hawkins asked about the expiration date of his parole and Evans, the parole agent said, “It doesn’t matter what the date is. We’re putting you on Lifetime Supervision” David said “How can you do that? I was not sentenced to Lifetime Supervision”. The state agent responded “It doesn’t matter whether you were sentenced, you are going to get put on Lifetime Supervision”. Dave responded that he was going to get a lawyer, and the little fascist agent spat: “Oooh—so what I’m I supposed to be scared?”
Almost three years later, having been violated and returned to custody, Dave did investigation from inside the walls and found out that the day after his first meeting with Aaron Evans his superiors, DPS Sergeant Cole and DPS Lieutenant Wood, both located in Reno, wrote a letter to the First Judicial District Court in Carson County. Get this clear, two non-lawyer police agents in the Washoe County, Second Judicial District, wrote to the First District Court in Carson County! And what did they say?
“Due to the nature of Mr. Hawkins crime, the Division of Parole and Probation is respectfully requesting that your honor amend the sentencing (sic) to include provisions of Lifetime Supervision”.
Amazingly, shockingly, the judge of the First District, James Wilson, Dept. 2, actually construed this letter to be a motion, even though it was EX PATE because Fatboy did not get noticed of the legal action against him. Judge Wilson, in violation of all known rules of procedure, actually issues an Order to the Carson County District Attorney, and to the State Public Defender, to file responsive pleadings to the letter of the Police Agent, which he attached to the Order. Neither the district attorney nor the public defender responded the judge’s Order which is a crime called “contempt of court”. The judge forgets about his Order of September 2011, based on the Police letter of August 2011.
In December 2012, Fatboy goes back to prison for a DUI. Right away he goes to the prison caseworker and timekeepers to ask about his good time and work credits. He discovered the errors and malicious “oversights” of Dept. of Public Safety police agent, Aaron Evans. He can’t file NDOC grievances for the actions of agents of another Department of the Nevada Executive branch. So, he files a Writ of Mandamus, and because the agents are located in the second District Court District jurisdiction of Washoe County, he files his papers In that jurisdiction, which covers his home address, but not until late 2013. In the earlier part of the year, his assertive agitation for his good time credits caught the attention of the Offender Management Division of the Department of Corrections (NDOC). A low level bureaucrat wrote to the First District Court, asking for the changed Judgment of Conviction. Again, the non-lawyer letter of a state agent outside the offices of county or state attorney, is construed to be an Ex-Parte Motion. And, after a lull of over a year, the First District judge James Wilson wakes up and decided to go ahead and issue an Order to Amend the Judgment of Conviction of David (Fatboy) Hawkins; he does not demand any responses of the district attorney or public defender of Carson City. Nor does he ask the real party in interest, Fatboy, what he thinks.
So an Amended Judgment issues in early April 2013, moved by the NDOC letter of March 2013, then NDOC wakes up and realizes they are wrong to move the court, and have their OMD division move the court a SECOND TIME to amend the judgment and remove the lifetime Supervision (but leave other restrictions in.) Again, David Hawkins is not notified about these actions which affect his life. He has no say to the power of the police state!
So how did he find out? In the course of agitating for his good time and work credits, he sent his mother down to the Carson City court house to get a copy of his 1996 Judgment of conviction in mid-August, 2013). What she gets in dated April, 2013, and May 20th 2013, where the court issued the Second Amended JOC removing the Lifetime Supervision. Fatboy’s mother, sends them to Fatboy, and he, incredulous, files an action called “Judicial Notice” to the Court (First District) who dismisses it with no relief.
The point of this is that if David did not have supportive family, he would never have discovered the illegal acts of the government. If they are doing it to him they are doing it to others.
David Hawkins expires in late April 2014. In late March or early April, his brother, also an ex-con, with a life sentence, was told by his DPP agent that he could not visit, associate or hang out with his brother, an egregious interruption of the family life of Hawkins, his mother and brother. He is busy filing complaints and has embarked on a letter campaign to officials to protect his substantive right to family!
2) Senate Bill 71 Applications Out, Many Jump
On April 10, NNCC Units were posted with an NDOC generated promulgation of the law change relating to the “aggregation” of consecutive sentences. Lots of old-timers are jumping at the chance because they are mature enough to succeed on parole. Among many, they are looking at the text of certain parts with grave concerns, because the vague and ambiguous text implies certain possibilities. For example, for parolee’s who violate the terms of release it sounds like, if we are correct, they go back to prison and SEVERE OUT THE REMAINDER OF THEIR TERM! The text says in two locations, NRS 213.1519, NRS 213.1215 that: “a parolee whose parole has been revoked by decision of the Board (of parole commissioners) for a violation of any rule or regulation…(b) must serve such part of the unexpired maximum term or the maximum aggregate term, as applicable…” DO THE MATH. 5 terms of 2-20 years equals aggregate of 10 to 100 years. Say you get out in 10 years and violate. You come back for 90 years?
3) ADKT 160 Study Repressed by Government Ideological Apparatus Part II
As mentioned in the Winter 2014 issue, the Task Force for the Study of Racial and Economic Bias in the Justice System was inspired by fear—the public panic over the Rodney King riots in Los Angeles, which spread like a contagion to the Las Vegas, Nevada area. Racism in America is an ugly little secret, and the even uglier secret is that racism is a form of nativisim, which in the western world, is a manifestation of a fatalistic perversion of a theological proposition about the omniscient (all-knowing) attribute of a monotheistic God.
If God knows all things, goes this twisted belief, it means that He knows in advance of those who are going to hell. Now, however true that might be, in traditional (pre-1500’s) theology, it is highly uncool to try and guess who God might be sending to heaven and hell, a form of pride worthy of hell itself. But it is a great source of power and control to make-believe you know what God has planned for people as classified by their bad acts—it justifies the creation of a Religious Caste of the Pure, and a Caste of the Damned who are impure, untouchable and worthy of a pogrom or genocide, a war against a class, or “type”, unworthy to live. What does it matter if they die? They are (according to the belief of the pure) going to hell anyway, why not send them early? In theology, this is called the principle of “absolute depravity” of mankind, as opposed to the idea of man’s intrinsic goodness, although, due to original sin, man has a tendency to sin. “Absolute depravity” is the so called “reformed” theology of northern Christians; the “puritans” are one the nonconformist sects, and is the metaphysical underpinning of the industrial consumer society. It is this world view that a man feels justified to look down her nose and label the “depraved” untouchable—“trailer trash”, “convicts”, you name it, the reformed Christian will kill it, at least metaphorically, indirectly and constructively by “social death” ofuntouchability.
NJPR decided to look at pre-arraignment issues of this study, because ALL the energies of the criminal justice administration are focused on this part of the process to secure the infamous 99% open-court confession and conviction rate in the territory of Nevada. The Committee for this issue had only ONE non-governmental agent—a Chief Operating Officer of a transportation corporation. Do you see the emergence of a Caste system of elites. The chair of the Committee was Robert Chaires, a UNR professor of the Dept. of Criminal Justice. The following are paraphrases of each issue studied:
1. Suggestion to appoint a standing committee to study bail and release on own recognizance;
2. Suggestion that judges adopt the federal system’s more liberal criteria of release;
3. Suggestion for thirds party pre-trial release at pre-trial stage;
4. Suggests increasing supervision to increase bailee opportunity;
5. Use of halfway houses for bailees;
6. Increase use of house arrest for bailees by sliding-scale fees for monitors;
7. Suggests DATA collection to identify the statistical behaviors of the government police powers;
8. Provide bail forms in Spanish languages;
9. Create practice of providing interpreters;
10. Independent study of the then current criteria used to allow bail and release on own recognizance;
11. Study initial charging practices and prohibit the well known practice of stacking (insofar as it affects bail);
12. Suggested legislation to prohibit charge stacking;
13. Suggested making “bright-line” rules regarding the due process timeline for speedy trial and probable cause hearings; “Good cause shall be enunciated fully on the record and evaluated completely by the court. THESE CHARGES SHOULD BE REVIEWED by the District Attorney team chiefs and/or CIVIL REVIEW BOARDS”! suggested continued monitoring by the standing committee.
14. Study plea negotiation practices by examining of differences between initial charges and convictions, and to increase “SETTLEMENT CONFERENCES” in criminal matters;
15. Suggested the Legislature conduct a study of the suggestions for bail alternatives.
If you make a count you’ll see that 12 out of 15 issues have to do with bail issues. Now, that is important financially for the rich but only beneficial psychologically for the indigent poor. The three remaining issues of “Charge-stacking”, the lack of “bright-line” due process rules and data collection on the institution behaviors of the criminal justice administration are HUGE issues which drive at the true cause of the 99% of the confession and conviction rate in Washoe County.
And the fact of the matter is that none of the last three issues have improved, and none of the suggestions have been taken by any county system we know of. In fact the trajectory, as we always say, has been on a downward spiral, and things have gotten continuously worse. “Charge-stacking” is a practice, usage and custom of all 3100 control-counties of the United States. No current court rules at any level whisper a word of concern. Jails still don’t have libraries, and judges collude to conceal what rules do exist; they then sadistically stand silent as public pretenders throw defendants under the bus, the bus of injustice, driven by “reformed” theology.
Section Three: Art, Culture, Education and Religion
1) Prisoner Publishers
The following outlets sent materials to NJPR:
Safe Streets Arts Foundation
2512 Virginia Ave. NW #58043
Washington DC 20037
director: Dennis Sobin
The foundation exhibits art by imprisoned artists, publishes books by prisoners and presents prisoner-written plays at the Kennedy Center. As for books, the foundation offers the service of scanning the hand written or typed text into digital format and stored on their website at www.PrisonsFoundation.org. it remains there forever. For a service fee the organization will give publicity to the book by making links on the internet, for a fee of $50 per year. Write for details
The American Prison Writing Archive
c/o 198 College Hill Road
Clinton NY 13323
Permanent archive of non-fiction essays, meant for future research. They ask for written permission and questionnaire. Write.
2) Poem: Surviving This Game, by Rahsqo
In this can all I do is think
And let this time do me,
No shell of a man, no need for shrink,
In this clink you just have to be.
From prisoners to guards, no in between’s
(Except a rat or two)
A couple of dozen queens in drag and fiends
And nazi wanna-bes, to name a few.
Don’t blink or you’ll miss the action
Or see some things that’s better unseen
Like finks falling prey to factions
Or a model can taking a fall.
The counselors are worthless, they add
To you stay at the barnyard inn.
Remain strong and never salute
The assholes, they’re not your friends!
3) Book Review: Psychotherapy as Religion: The Civil Divine in America, by William M. Epstein, University of Nevada Press, 2006
This book can be seen as a contribution to the history of the modern priority of the realms of nature and man over the realm of the divine. Nietzsche’s cry of “God is dead” refers to this de-emphasis of God, and the elevation of man, and nature, to divine status. Man is a social creature, and creates structures of relationships that preserves itself as the common good. His grasp of abstract transcendental such as the Good, the Beautiful, and Truth provide the moral compass of his structures of relations. This moral capacity of man to recognize the likelihood of a Creator, and thus a divine source of all being, manifests in a social structure we know as “religion”. Now, it has become all the rage to kill God off, and laugh at “organized religion”. The contemporary slogan represents the modern view: “I’m not religious, I’m spiritual”.
Well, man, being denied both religion and divinity, creates a vacuum into which he projects his sociality and natural consciousness of God into his now godless and religion-less world and comes up with structures of relation that fill the vacuum-quasi-religious with a quasi-religious leadership and social hierarchy. Man cannot be without a concrete moral compass with educative rituals that convey the content of answers about ultimate concern: death, judgment, heaven, hell and norms of conduct for our social relations.
What fills the void left after the demolishment of the western religion by the western nation-state? Right—psychotherapy and its huge social structure of ministers, and the chemical Eucharist and other sacraments. Here’s what Epstein says:
“… The therapeutic relationship is a deeply sanctioned, socially intended vehicle for dramatizing and affirming social values… The dominant therapies… are obedient to central social values. Indeed, the conformity with institutionalized American preferences is so close that psychotherapy constitutes a powerful expression of America’s civil religion. The relationship between therapist and patient is the same as the relationship between minister and parishioner, with the sameimplied pressures for straying members of the flock to return to the virtuous of conventional belief. Even more powerfully in both [traditional religion and psychotherapy] the methods of teaching learning and knowing are spiritual, not rational… Both are metaphysical… Indeed, psychotherapy, together with its ecclesiastical institutional support in the university, its professional societies that act as curias, and its extensive parish organization in clinics, social-welfare programs, and private practices, constitutes America’s most important civil religion and civil church”.
The only thing Professor Epstein overlooks is this religion’s status as an unconstitutional STATE RELIGION. The presence of this modern church in prison is a source of torture—one must attend the rituals and ceremonies or be subject to the bloodless punishment of serial sentencing imposed by the bishops of the parole board and the ministers of the Department of Corrections. The ideological apparatus of the state is the civil church of psychotherapists, who, as healers, are no more scientific as pagan witchdoctors.
The only other criticism of this thesis of the religious function of psycho-therapeutic industry is its failure to trace its origen historically. But this is excusable given the author’s special training in social work, whose main focus is on the flourishing of people in the here and now. The only portal to the truth, regarding the metaphysical causality of the current regime dominance of a mandatory state civil religion and its ceremonial apparatus, is law and religion. The modern industrial empire is the spawn of Martin Luther and Calvin, as demonstrated classicly by Max Weber’s Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. But it is Luther’s demoralization from culture of the “special priesthood” that directly causes the rise of a new, “scientific” priestly class. To replace the “special priesthood”, Luther made ALL MEN (and women) priests! This principle of the universal, r “common”, priesthood is an idea derived from the Old and New Testaments in conjunction with the “special priesthood”. When the “special priesthood is destroyed, it is done so only out of a lust for the power the “special” priest is conferred with. That power is now expropriated by the state—Luther planned this! Why do you think judges where black monks robes?